Signing a transaction is the final step of any transaction, like sending funds out of your account. A transaction will not be broadcasted in the blockchain until you sign it. You sign a transaction with your private key for your account, proving that you own this account. The signing process, however, depends on what wallet or account manager you use.


Signing a transaction on Ledger


NOTEFor most users, we strongly recommend adding Ledger through the Polkadot browser extension. Click here to see the benefits and instructions.


Whether you add your Ledger through the Polkadot browser extension or directly on Polkadot-JS UI, you need a UI to interact with your accounts and initiate transactions.


1. Connect your Ledger to the computer, unlock it, and open the Polkadot app:


2. On Polkadot-JS UI, initiate a transaction and click "Sign and Submit":



3. Skip this step if you added your Ledger directly on Polkadot-JS UI. If you added your Ledger through the Polkadot extension, a new window will pop up:



It is the Polkadot browser extension asking you to sign a transaction. Click on the "Sign on Ledger" button. The button will grey out, awaiting confirmation from your Ledger device.


4. The message "Please review" will appear on your Ledger device:


Press the right button to check the transaction details:

How can I verify what extrinsic I'm signing?


5. After you have checked the transaction details, you will see "Approve" on your Ledger device. To sign the transaction, press both buttons on this screen:



To reject the transaction, move to the next screen that says "Reject" and press both buttons to confirm:


6. Congratulations, you have signed a transaction! It will be included in the blockchain within a few seconds. You can now open any of the block explorers to view your transaction:



Cannot sign a transaction?


The new window doesn't appear


If a new window doesn't pop up after you click "Sign and Submit," please check if your browser blocked it:



You can allow pop-ups after you click on the blocked window icon.


The Polkadot extension icon in the toolbar will have a red number on it if you have unsigned transactions waiting. If you blocked or accidentally closed the window, click on the extension icon to open it and proceed.


If you have added your Ledger directly on Polkadot-JS UI and not through the extension, no new window will appear. You can move to the next step of the guide.


My transaction failed


Signing a transaction means that it will be included in the blockchain. However, it doesn't always mean it will be executed. You can check the result of your transaction on a block explorer. Sometimes a transaction cannot be executed, and it fails:



Please check this article to help you understand why your transaction failed, fix the issue, and send the transaction again.


I get an error


Several possible reasons can cause errors when signing a transaction on Ledger. Please search for the error message in our Knowledge base; we likely have a solution for it.